Сегодня наконец-то получил по почте научный журнал с очередной своей публикацией. На этот раз мне повезло опубликовать результаты своих философских исследований в Америке!!!
Моя статья «The philosophical problem of antinomies in the musical reason» была включена в журнал «Scientific enquiry in the contemporary world: theoretical basiсs and innovative approach». Это сборники научных статей, которые выходят в издательстве США при поддержке «B&M Publishing» (Калифорния, США). Данному сборнику присваивается ISBN Соединенных Штатов Америки и DOI в системе Crossref.
Каждому автору сборника бесплатно высылается именной сертификат – это авторский документ, который заверяется подписью и печатью.
Далее привожу текст своей научной статьи.
THE PHILOSOPHICAL PROBLEM OF ANTINOMIES IN THE MUSICAL REASON
The musical reason is a little-explored area of modern philosophy. The process of musical thinking was traditionally interpreted in the way of musicological terminology and stayed away from philosophical criticism. Philosophical essence, conceptual and categorical apparatus, structure, functions, patterns, and the antinomies of this object are not investigated remained to the end are.
Therefore, the relevance of this research is with philosophical and critical analysis of the ontological and epistemological problems of musical reason. Naturally, the process thinking with the help of musical sounds, musical images and forms, has its own logic, dialectics and structure.
The subject of this article is ontological foundations and logic of musical reason. The object is antinomies, which arise during the process of musical thinking.
The main problems which will be referred to in the article are related such aspects as: 1) the definition of the philosophical essence of musical reason as a manifestation of artistic and creative activities of a person; 2) the description of the structure of the antinomies and their variants in the logic of musical thought processes.
The musical composition is an operation with intonations. Musical thinking process itself is not a simple movement of the sounds, it’s the complex mechanism of creative activity aimed at establishing logic rhythmic and tonal intonation image conversion. Musical reason can operate with intonation thought forms, as well as the pure reason operates with logical structures. In this case, intonation model acts as the carrier of musical Eidos, or the priori idea of the ideal image. Musical intonation is ontological substratum of the musical thinking. And at the same time, in this process manifests the subjective individuality as a composer-creator and receptive listener.
The process of musical thinking begins at the intersection of the objective and subjective. Objectively, there is an external sound, it’s our stimulus auditory sensations, and subjectively there is a reaction to this sound.
In the processes of musical thinking we are dealing with the logic of artistic synthesis. The phenomenon of music makes mathematical operations with visual numbers and sensually tangible figures. Musical aesthetics in this case becomes like a gateway through which the ideal passes into a material, and logical passes into an empirical. And also, vice versa: the material passes into an ideal, empirical passes into logic.
In this transition from the sensual, empirical perception to musical image which being constructed rational, and with its subsequent objectification and disobjectification, musical thinking is encountering with some contradictions, which can be expressed as the antinomy of judgment.
The problem of such contradictions between the observations data and their logical analysis begins from the paradoxes of Zeno described by Aristotle in "Physics" (Sixth book) [1, 199 - 200]. Aristotle emphasized that contradiction is a universal principle of being, because a thing can not be and not to be at the same time. Plutarch, Sextus Empiricus, St. Augustine and others paid theirs attention to the problem of antinomies. The philosophical understanding of antinomies by E. Kant gaves the particular importance in the works "Critique of Pure Reason" (1781) and "Critique of Judgment" (1789-1790).
In the philosophy of music the problem of antinomies also exists, and it occurs because of the contradiction between the audio sensory data and their logical-theoretical analysis in the theory of music.
The musical intonation, in order to be truly artistic, aesthetic, and not an empty set of sounds, should match the original categories, based on which, the intonation and imitation of the sounds of nature generates the music. Such initial categories are four: 1) the sounding, allowing you to hear the sound; 2) the significance that allows the listener to comprehend the sound filled with image; 3) the structural integrity that allows to understand the whole piece of music from the beginning to the end; 4) the movement and the change that allows perceive tonal image in the process of its gradual emergence and development, within the sounding of the whole musical work.
These source categories are the basis of the four antinomies of musical and theoretical reasoning.
The first category – the sounding – leads to basic paradox:
The music is sounding.
Not all that sounds, is music.
Naturally, roar of thunder and creaking of the door can not be considered as music. Although, these are the everyday sounds that have no artistic value for us. But, nevertheless, Polish composer K. Penderetskiy (his musical work "Fluorescence") included into a large symphony orchestra extraordinary sounding: "sawing wood with saw, knock of typewriter, grinding of glass with file, noise of sirens" [10, 587]. R. Wagner in some of his operas introduces anvil. This antinomy is close to B. Russell's antinomy "paradox of classes" - the element of sounding is considered both as a physical phenomenon, and as a logical intonation.
The humanity has invented a method of creating artificial unnatural, perfect sounds with a clean, clearly fixed tone. The natural sound generated the art sound during aesthetic and rational transformation. According to Hegel's aesthetics, beauty in nature, is a "sensually meaningful (sinnvolle) contemplation" [3, 132] of forms. The violins do not exist in nature, even though they are made from natural materials according to natural laws of "golden section" and to features of technical acoustics. In music, we are dealing not just with the sounding, but we are dealing with the fact of ideal sounding of sensible sensual intonation.
The second category is the category of meaning which concerns the interpretation and understanding of musical image. There is a contradiction in an aspect of the expression of particular thought, because musical text and linguistic text are at opposite poles of the conceptual discourse.
What the language cannot express, the music can express.
What is expressed by the music is not always possible to express by the language.
The music can be regarded as a totality of the mega-texts that needs correct interpretation, understanding and executing according to the requirements of musical syntax. The musical mega-text is a concept which implies the universality of musical expression. The essence of musical mega-text is not in the concepts and logic (as in language), but in the association, when the unit of information which contain the sense, is based on: a) the intonation, b) the image c) the association. For the musical mega-text there is no "language barriers" that radically distinguish the phenomenon of music from the phenomenon of language.
The ontological aspects of speech and music are at opposite poles. This contrast refers to logical and discursive features of both of these phenomena.
If language refers to logical and conceptual discourse and the main aspect of speech is the word which can be defined as a certain notion and specific symbol, then music refers to a logical field, associative discourse where the intonation model can have a sense concept and meaning only through association. Language is more logical and rational, but music is more sensual, emotional and empirical.
Music doesn’t express the subtext verbally or with the help conceptual construction, but it is just a mega text by itself. It’s the separate universal language. From the point of view of philosophy, psychology, the phenomenon of music is capable to embody the collective unconscious in terms of its text. After all, if semiotics and syntactic logic of speech inevitably pose language barriers between those who know and understand it, and those who do not know or understand a particular language, the phenomenon of music on the contrary – breaks all the conventions of conceptual content.
The universality of musical mega-text in its internationality, for example: we don’t know the German language, we can easily understand the musical works by J.S. Bach, which were written in the eighteenth century. People can speak different languages, but they experience the extreme range of emotions from joy to grief on the same associative level. Their feelings approximately are the same subjected to the standards of the collective unconscious [9, 166-167].
If the phenomenon of music is the logic of feelings, emotions and experiences, that can act, change and transform into each other, then the phenomenon of language is the logic of concepts, which "huddle" the consciousness in frames of the language barrier. And if for perception of Bach’s music the German language is not required, but for the understanding of Immanuel Kant’s works in the original the knowledge of German is necessary.
The musical intonation only simulates the intonation of language. Music only constructs the model of speech intonations (the musical movement up - this is the question; the musical movement down - this is the answer). Music rejects the conceptual scope of language and leaves for itself only external form of intonation, and fills the resulting logic circuit with emotional sensual experience, imaginative comprehension and associative understanding, by all available means (timbre, rhythm, speed, tone, harmony). The universal language of music is an expression of the continuous flow of feelings, actions, experiences and images in their logic, associative incarnation and becoming, thus, in a language we can express our idea as a statement of fact, while in the process of musical thinking, we can reveal the same idea by intonation logically and emotionally, giving it an empirical and associative incarnation. The musical intonation model confronts to the language concepts, and at the same time, the musical intonation model associated with the language concepts. Note that musical thinking only possible when there is a meaningful intonation, and not a chaotic set of sounds.
The musical mega-text allows you to feel the emotional logic of the linguistic text. For example, A. F. Losev made an analysis of Richard Wagner’s, art and came to an interesting conclusion about the relationship of music and language. He interprets the Wagnerian Ring of Power not just socially and politically, but mainly cosmologically. In other words, in the symbol of Ring R. Wagner wanted "to express the fact which the word is not expressible by prose" [7, 286]. The music as a universal language is a communication of emotions, in which the logic of the information process lies not in concepts but in the means of intonation and expressiveness (harmony, arrangement, melody, etc.).
The musical intonation only mimics and imitates the external logic of language, but significantly extends the emotional and semantic context.
The third source category - structural integrity - comes from the previous one. Let us take an example an important I. Kant’s remark: "to think about things can be different ways - or purely or empirical" [4, 157]. The composer makes, creates, and designs from musical images the whole structure of the whole musical work, unwrapping his musical images in time. Here again sensuous and logical aspects, logic and senses with emotion can be intersected and mutually exclusive.
The music is created by pre-established practice of the laws of logic and the theory of harmony.
The music takes its origin from emotion, feelings chaotic and unpredictable experiences.
In this sense it is appropriate to recall two composers - Mozart and R. Wagner, because they originated two methods of musical composition: "Mozart`s way of creativity" and "Wagner’s way of creativity" [2, 5]. Mozart because of his ingenious talent could create masterpieces on an intuitive level, logic for him was only a secondary tool for the final "polishing" of the obtained intonation material.
R. Wagner, on the contrary, created his music more rationally, painfully choosing each leitmotif to his opera. For R. Wagner emotionality is not the dominant but it’s a vivid effect. We can even draw a parallel with the history of philosophy: Mozart is closer to the empirical F. Bacon and R. Wagner is closer to the rationalist Descartes, despite the commitment of the Wagnerism closer to Dionysian in art. It does not prove that the Mozart’s music is more natural and living. It does not mean that the Wagner's operas are literal and constructive. R. Wagner always came from natural intonation. "In the middle of Act II - the famous scene "Rustling of Forest" the characteristic of Siegfried, is dissolved in a colorful picture of nature. By the subtle orchestral techniques R. Wagner creates the impression of the whispering forest under the sun, which is full of mystic voices; here an ominous bird is singing – bird’s melody composer once overheard and recorded while walking in a sunny spring day " [6, 66]. R. Wagner logically "handles" the living intonation, according to the requirements of the composition. Mozart "retouched" the rational requirements and he "dissolved" the logic in the unconscious stream of emotional melodies.
This antinomy brings us back to the I. Kant’s "Critique of Judgment", who formulated this contradiction as follows: "The thesis: every beginning of material things is only possible by the mechanical laws.
The opposite thesis: some causing of it is impossible over only the mechanical laws.
In this last meaning, it would contradict each other, as objective principles for the determining the power of judgment, consequently, so one these two conceptions can be false; but then it would not be an antinomy of judgment, but the contradiction in the law of reason. But reason can not prove either one or the other basic thesis, since we can not have the a priori determining principle about the possibility of things only on empirical laws of nature" [5, 413].
The "Beethoven’s way of creativity" is totally awesome. Deaf L. Beethoven wrote his music exclusively by the sound memory, at the end of his life. But we need to specify the fact that Beethoven could also rely on ready-made logical and algorithmic constructions of music theory and harmony, without empirical sensation of the sounds. He has compensated successfully the lack of auditory sensations not only by the memory, but that material which was in his possession after the logical, rational interpretation of the characteristics of musical sound as quantitative (rhythm, tone) and as qualitative (melody, chords, harmony, polyphony).
Most likely, the structural integrity of the phenomenon of music is hyletic logic (by A.F. Losev). Our sensations and perceptions of the sound vibrations are fit into a coherent system of contrast experiences - pleasant or irritable. The combinations of sounds that cause stress are unpleasant for us, but the euphonious connection – generates the sense of beauty in us.
We can build a variety of empirical and logical figures of the intonation experiences by using pleasant and unpleasant things in different proportions, strengthening or weakening their impact with various compositional techniques. Yet Kant called "the game of sensations" this method of the "juggling" with empirical feelings in music [5, 343]. The game with sensations combines in equal proportions the logical origin and emotional origin in music. This is the meaning of the structural integrity of the phenomenon of music and all of kinds of musical forms - from elementary two-part form, to the symphonic form or opera.
The fourth source category - the movement and the change - characterizes the dialectic of musical image. Music is the art of time and therefore an integral part of a musical work is the change in time. The variety of artistic design and the depth of imagination of the composer, on the one hand, and colorful palette of emotional feelings of the listener on the other hand is manifested in movement. Categories of movement and change follow from previous source category of structural integrity. After all, the idea expressed in certain combinations of dissonance (unpleasant and unnatural sound) and consonance (harmony pleasant) is a source of the musical movement. However, there is a contradiction between consonance (harmony) and dissonance (disharmony) from the point of view of logic here.
The dissonance is less pleasant than consonance, because it has unnatural tension. It should go to the harmony.
The dissonance detects the movement of the harmony and it is the ultimate source of any movement. It is a necessary element of musical harmony.
You can create the musical work based only dissonance (as dodecaphony) or consonants (as Gregorian chants). Both of them will be extremes in theory and too unnatural in terms of perception. The dissonance is the source of movement, but the consonance is "brake" of movement, if the dissonance enhances instability underscores the culmination and "destroys" the tonal unity, but the consonance rather restores "disturbed balance," it is more stable. The consonance "removes" the illogical combination of dissonant tones and restores the tonal integrity. So, the dissonance and the consonance are dialectically interrelated opposites to each other. «No matter how much is said about these concepts, (the consonance and the dissonance - AK), there is no possibility to solve them a bases of the physics, the physiology, the psychology, the history. Someone talks about "unity" of sounds, about "merger", about "the association", etc. All of this is nonsense! The dissonance - is also a unity, as a kind of merger, as a kind of association. Historically, this problem is also not solvable, because at different times, the different combinations experienced as consonance. The only way to understand these facts of musical form is the dialectic. Again giving the exact formula I would say so» [8, 354].
Consequently, the musical work is an effectual process in time. This process follows from the dialectics of dissonant and consonant, in the most complete and profound works. The main line of this process is the effectual development and change of the dissonance with consonance in the complex dynamic interchangeable, and vice versa. A. F. Losev`s characteristic testifies about it. G. F. Hegel in his defended "Aesthetics" the similar idea about the fusion, the relationship, the complementarities of harmony the color and sound [3, 141].
The dissonance has an internal, physical unity of tones in their external voltage, the consonance is conversely melodious outwardly, but inwardly it is contrary to the flow of movement, because the consonance stops the movement and makes a musical image of static. The dissonance and consonance influence on the integrity and completeness of intonation.
So, we can summarize and make final conclusions about the essence of musical thinking and antinomies in its processes: 1) the musical reason operates with intonation thought forms, as well as the pure reason operates with logical structures. From this it follows that the intonation is ontological substratum of musical thinking. 2) the musical reason confronted with contradictions during the transition - from sensually experiential perception to the rational being constructed musical image and its subsequent objectification and disobjectification. Such contradictions can be expressed as the judgments with antinomies.
The four source categories underlying in antinomies of musical theoretical reasoning are: the sounding, the significance, the structural integrity, the movement and the change. As a result, we can also identify four antinomies in the processes of musical reason. The problem of such antinomies occurs at the boundary between the empirical data and logical analysis.
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PS. Это моя вторая научная статья, опубликованная за границей. Весной этого года мне удалось опубликовать свои исследования по проблематике украинского образования в Польском журнале «Nowoczesna edukacja: filozofia, innowacja, doswiadczenie». Моя статья называлась «Rozwój nowoczesnej edukacji ukraińskich w Europejskich filozoficznych fundamentów (przypadek Polski)».